( -) (1527, , . , - 1602, ), , . . " " ( 1599) ; , . . . " " ( 1600) " = ?" (1618), . . ., " " ., . . , . . . , . . . 20 .

.: . ., , : , ., 1969; , , .: , [.], 1970; -, , , 1957; W. ., Self and society in Ming thought, N. Y. - L.,1970.

? . . .

: